The TCDD - Türkiye Devlet Demir Yollari (Turkish Republic Railways) possess 8,607 km of 1435 mm gauge, of which 1,524 km are electrified (1999). In 2004, Marmaray project started on a rail tunnel under the Bosphorus straights.
Between Istanbul and Ankara, a high speed railroad line is being constructed now next to the normal speed railroad which is being renovated. When finished, travel time between the two major cities will reduce from 6,5 hours to 3 hours and 10 minutes, using trains ordered from Spain that can reach up to 250km/h.
Construction of a high speed railroad line between Ankara and Konya is also soon to begin in order to connect the two cities with a direct line and reduce travel time from several hours to approximately one hour. Several other high speed and normal railroad projects are currently in the planning stage. Cities with underground railway systems are Ankara, Istanbul, Izmir, Bursa, and Adana (under construction).
After almost 30 years without any trams, Turkey is experiencing a revival in trams. Established in 1992, the tram system of Istanbul earned the best large-scale tram management award in 2005. Another award winning tram network belongs to Eskisehir, a city with a new tram system opened in 2004. Several other cities are planning or constructing tram lines, usually with modern low-floow trams. Cities with Light Rail Transit systems: Istanbul, Ankara, Eskisehir, Konya, Antalya, Kayseri(under construction).
There are numerous private bus companies providing connections between cities in Turkey. For local trips to villages there are dolmuses, small vans that seat about twenty passengers.
total: 8,697 km
standard gauge: 8,697 km 1.435-m gauge (2,122 km electrified) (2004)
total: 354,421 km
paved: 147,404 km (including 1,851 km of expressways)
unpaved: 207,017 km (2002)
1,200 km (2003)
gas 3,177 km; oil 3,562 km (2004)
Ports and harbours
Gemlik, Hopa, Iskenderun, Istanbul, Izmir, Kocaeli (Izmit), Icel (Mersin), Samsun, Trabzon
total: 526 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 4,666,895 GRT/7,311,504 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 108, cargo 228, chemical tanker 45, combination ore/oil 1, container 25, liquefied gas 6, passenger 5, passenger/cargo 50, petroleum tanker 33, refrigerated cargo 2, roll on/roll off 22, specialized tanker 1
foreign-owned: 8 (Cyprus 3, Denmark 2, Greece 1, Italy 1, Switzerland 1)
registered in other countries: 231 (2005)
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